We do not perform, nor do we ever commission any third parties on our behalf to perform, testing of our products or ingredients on animals, except where required by law. All our products are safe and have been developed, manufactured and packaged in compliance with the laws, regulations and guidelines that are applicable in each country in which they are sold. Our safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients is based on the use of recognized alternatives to animal testing, the use of existing safety data and, increasingly, the sharing of such data with other industries. It is common knowledge that China requires mandatory animal tests on all cosmetic products imported into the country. We continue to be involved in the dialogue with the Chinese authorities, including through our active membership of the China Association of Fragrance Flavor and Cosmetic Industries (CAFFCI), to replace animal tests with alternatives. As a result, China has recently started to investigate ways to replace animal testing and has sought the assistance of European scientists. We have been actively involved in the research and development of alternatives to animal testing for many years. We were a party to SEURAT-1, the single largest Private-Public Partnership initiative which aimed to develop alternatives to animal testing of cosmetic products. With a total contribution of €50 million, funded in equal by the European Commission and the cosmetics industry, it managed to produce some alternative methods to animal testing and set the ground for further development of which we are also part. The common goal of all these efforts is to completely replace animal testing through validated alternative methods which ensure our products are safe for consumer use.